The Lesotho energy sector is characterized by a low level of energy consumed from commercial sources (electricity, petroleum, coal and gas) with a high level of consumption of energy from biomass sources. According to AFREC’s energy balance 2020, most of the electricity is consumed in the households at 35% and industry at 31% of the total electricity consumed in Lesotho. Like most countries in sub-Sahara Africa, Lesotho’s fuel share of total final consumption is dominated by biofuels and waste at 57% followed by oil, 26%, electricity at 7% and coal at 7%. The energy balance is dominated by biomass energy resources, which is closely associated with environmental degradation in the form of deforestation and soil erosion, a phenomenon likely to continue until renewable energy technology becomes economically viable in the country. The country energy profile is characterized by a predominance of traditional biomass energy to meet the energy needs of rural households and a heavy dependence on imported petroleum for the modern economic sector needs. As a result, the country faces challenges related to unsustainable use of traditional forms of biomass and exposure to high and unstable oil import prices. Rural households meet their energy requirements mostly from biomass energy sources (wood, shrubs, crop wastes and dung) supplemented by paraffin. Urban households use mostly paraffin supplemented by biomass, gas and coal in specific areas. The residential sector consumes more than 90% of the country’s total biofuels and waste consumption.
Energy Consumption/Pop. (2018)
Total Primary Energy Supply (2018)
Total Final Consumption (2018)