Most of the country's electricity generated in Eritrea comes from oil that is imported into the country. The use of biomass for cooking, using generally inefficient appliances such as the mogogo, has led to unsustainable energy supplies, especially the traditional biomass, and is contributing to carbon emissions. Deforestation is resulting from overuse of biomass for fuel. Without alternatives, the pressure on Eritrea’s limited forest resources would increase. The main source of energy for lighting is kerosene, which is burnt through wick lamps. There are no indigenous sources of oil, natural gas, coal and hydropower. Eritrea is facing acute shortages of modern energy services, especially in rural areas, and the country is generally characterized by low energy consumption levels.

In order to facilitate the economic development of Eritrea, further development of the electricity sector is necessary. The over-reliance on imported fossil fuels does not only divert scarce financial resources from other socio-developmental areas, but further contributes to environmental emissions and energy related health problems.

AFREC 2020 energy balance 2020 shows a total primary energy supply of 838.67ktoe of which biomass represented 64% while petroleum products represented 31%. Biomass: There are many indications of potential for modern biomass energy usage in certain locations in Eritrea: The Alighider Farm Estate has the potential to supply raw materials (cotton and sorghum stalks, elephant grass, banana leaves etc.) for briquette production for at least 15 plants, each with a capacity of 4000 tons per year. Briquettes are a replacement for fuelwood and charcoal. Agricultural waste could generate electricity thermally, Biogas plants could be installed in the Elabered Agro-industry, and other smaller dairy farms, Biogas could be generated from cactus trees, Energy recovery from municipal solid and liquid wastes is possible, Energy crops, such as Salicornia (being developed by SeaWater Farms, a biofuels company), could generate electricity for local uses or for the central grid.

Key Figures

3,50 M
Population (2019)
0,57 kus$
GDP/capita (2019)
10,21 GJ/capita
Energy Consumption/Pop. (2018)
0,84 Mtoe
Total Primary Energy Supply (2018)
0,64 Mtoe
Total Final Consumption (2018)
2,86 Mus$ 2010
GDP (2019)