In Chad, only less than 10% of the population has access to electricity. This goes hand-in-hand with low rates of access to basic services such as drinking water, basic sanitation and paved roads. Meanwhile, crude oil has become the country’s primary source of export earnings.
The exorbitant cost and scarcity of electricity poses a major obstacle to Chad’s economic development. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 4,375 ktoe. The energy problem is central to environmental issues. Wood and charcoal provide 83% of the energy consumed in Chad, and LPG consumption is on the rise. However, only a small percentage of the population uses this type of energy. There is currently oil refining activity in Chad and has produced in 2018 683 ktoe.
The bulk of consumption is met through biomass. Biomass: Agricultural residues are abundant in the region and very valuable for energy production. As a sugar producing country, Chad has large quantities of bagasse available for energy production from co-generation as a surplus from the internal sugar mills needs. Biomass is the primary energy source for the majority of the country's rural population. AFREC’s 2020 energy balance shows that the total final consumption (TFC) is dominated by biofuel & waste and represent 83% followed by oil product and electricity respectively 16% and 1%.
Energy Consumption/Pop. (2018)
Total Primary Energy Supply (2018)
Total Final Consumption (2018)